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Monday, February 15, 2016

4G

4G communication / 4G networks



LEARN ABOUT THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 1G , 2G , 3G , 4G . 




4G we all hearing this word now because 4G officially availible now for the user of  INDIA .
To understand the 4G we need to be familiaer with the techology terms of it. So in next lines i am going to explain about the 4G (which i learned from the internet)
MEGAHERTZ (MHz) this term is used to explain the frequncy band used in mobile communication .

To learn about 4G we need to understand the all G or ganaration.

"G or GENERATION present the DETAIL OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL IMPLIMENTATION OF PERTICULER MOBILE PHONE SYSTEM WHICH IS SET OF THE TELEPHONE NETWORK. "

·         1G
·         2G
·         3G
·         4G or LTE


1G 
 this is the first generation of mobile / wireless communication, in technical terms this technology is the ANALOG TECHNOLOGY. which introduced in india in startin of 20s .
The main technology behind this generation is AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System). this system is only voice system ( receiving of voice or transmitting of voice) .It works on the 800 MHz band width,
in this the 800 MHz RADIO is split into 395 voice channels and 21 controls channels via FDMA (each of 30 KHz)


 
1G phone
KEY POINTS
  • 1.       Range is 40 KMs.
  • 2.       2 Million users (in AUS)
  • 3.       It lasts till 1999
  • 4.       Because it has limitation of only transmission of voice so it need to be upgraded and the 2G introduced in the play .








2G

this generation is so efficient that it spreaded and become famous orldwide.
Mainly the drawbacks of the 1G's removed in this generation technicaly this is a DIGITAL system for the mobile communication. it removed the limitation of the range of the AMPS as in 1G and because its digital it is more secure from the noise and the enviromental disturbance.
It has more FEATURES


·         MMS
·         SMS
·         INTERNET OR DATA CONNECTION
·         SIM CARD (I'D of the user )
·         LONG RANGE COVRAGE etc.
2G 's performance is so good that it made the mobile communication very famaouse and after some time the network got a standard name GSM ( GLOBAMSYSTEM FOR MOBILE )
2G phone

KEY FEATURES
  • 1.       IT USE THE TDMA TECHNOLOGY FOR COMMUNICATION.
  • 2.       IT WORKS IN TWO BANDS 900MHz AND 1800MHz (which is divided into 124 channels of 200KHz  each caring the 8 slot of .577 micro second burst ( short time period for work or transmission)
  • 3.       IT USES THE 64 BIT STREAM.
  • 4.       DISADVANTAGE  OF THE SYSTEM IS ITs PACKET DATA SPEED IS SLOW , TO OVERCOME THIS THE CDMA(which means no TDMA ) AND EDGE IS INTRODUCED WHICH HAS MORE SPEED THEN NORMAL 2G .







3G 
It introduced in 2005 , the main advantage of the 3G is it has more faster data transmission speed.
KEY FEATURES
1.       IT USES 2100 MHz FREQUNCY BAND .
2.       ITs BASED ON UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) TECHNOLOGY WITH CDMA WHICH PROVIDE THE FASTER DATA TRANSMISSION. ( in UMTS technology HSPA and HSUPA is introduced)
3.       THIS GENERATION INTRODUCED THE WIDEBAND CDMA ( Better calculations then the genral CDMA )
4.       MAJOR  DIS ADVANTAGE IS IT HAS MORE ATTAUNATION AND LOW COVRAGE AREA.



4G OR LTE 
It introduced in 2011
This generation is also known as the LONG TERM EVOLUTION (3GGP) . Its a slight upgradation in the UMTS technology.
LTE is launched in the 1800 MHz frequency band  and still its ideal speed is 100 MBps for downloading (Base Station to User end) and 50 MBps for the uploading(Userend to Base station) . Lower latency ( 300 Micro seconds to 100 Micro seconds) .
LTE is launched in INDIA in
·          2300 MHz - 2400 MHz band [TD(time division)-LTE]  *ONLINE (currently active)
·         1800 MHz [FDD(frequency division duplex)-LTE], this band's auction is organised by the goverment but currently not activated by any of Service Providers. *OFFLINE  
LTE technology in INDIA is mainly divided into 2 topology
I.        LTE-FDD
II.      LTE-TDD
REASON OF HIGH SPEED IN 4G AS COMPARE TO 3G Is that ,LTE two beam or data streams are used to transmitt the data at the angle of 45 and 135 respectively.Which is known as MIMO (     multi input multi output) POLARIZATION.
it means that transmitter part contain 2 antenna to serve the speed od internet,in our basic mobile phones there are only one RECEIVING antenna so it can not be used for the 4G communication.

MIMO POLARIZATION

KEY FEATURES
·        MORE SPEED IN DATA TRANSFER.
·        LOWER LATENCY.
·        LOWER NETWORK CONGESTIONs.
·        REUSE OF 1800MHz FREQUENCY BAND WITH HIGHSPEED.
·        USE OF ADVANCED UMTS TECHNOLOGY.
·        MORE SECURITY IN THE NETWORK.

NEXT ARTICLE WILL ON UMTS. THANKS FOR READING. STAY TUNED .

Wednesday, February 10, 2016

Intel and Qualcomm Collaborate to Build Robust 802.11ad Ecosystem


INTEL

Intel and Qualcomm Collaborate to Build Robust 802.11ad Ecosystem







Qualcomm

Latest technology 802.11ad represents an important step in the evolution of Wi-Fi, enabling new user capabilities such as wire-equivalent docking and high-quality, low-latency video streaming, multimedia kiosks, while bringing a step increase in network capacity, and much more.
We are excited to announce that Qualcomm Atheros* and Intel have reached a crucial milestone in making  802.11 ad WiGig* a mainstream and widely available technology. Intel and Qualcomm Atheros have successfully demonstrated multi-gigabit interoperability between our companies’ respective 802.11ad WiGig solutions. This milestone will help pave the way for industry development of 802.11 ad WiGig devices that can communicate and connect seamlessly with each other at amazing speeds of up to 4.6 Gbps. Moreover, this milestone underscores both companies’ commitment to the strong evolution of Wi-Fi, both infrastructure and peer-to-peer communications, as well as the critical role 802.11ad ( bluetooth catagory) WiGig plays in this evolutionary process.
Laptops, tablets, smartphones, access points, storage devices, untethered VR glasses and other 802.11ad WiGig-capable devices offer multi-gigabit speeds, high density, low latency and very high network capacity, as well as empower a new class of applications and services. 802.11ad will transform the experience of Wi-Fi users, be it in their offices, homes or even in public places. Bringing the vast, new spectrum in 60 GHz band to Wi-Fi’s fold, 802.11ad will be one of the potent tools to address burgeoning data demand in homes, enterprises and carrier networks.
Qualcomm Atheros and Intel engineers worked collaboratively for months in each other’s labs, running countless tests, culminating in this achievement. These tests spanned across many use cases and scenarios, including peer-to-peer connections between Intel- and Qualcomm Atheros 802.11ad WiGig – based clients and Qualcomm Atheros-802.11ad WiGig powered access points (wireless routers). Tests examined various cases and conditions – from device discovery and connection to full-blown data uploads and downloads, streaming and more. As part of the testing, we successfully achieved multi-gigabit real data throughput between our devices.
Achieving full interoperability is not easy. This level of collaboration and focused effort is essential in creating new markets and building a robust ecosystem, and in ultimately providing seamless user experience across multi-vendor devices.
While more work lies ahead, our collaboration lays the groundwork for a large ecosystem of interoperable commercial 802.11ad products across networking, mobile and computing segments. We are excited about the new capabilities 802.11ad enables – from 4K display connectivity to tri-band (2.4 GHz, 5 GHz and 60 GHz) Wi-Fi networking and high-speed cellular offload – and we think you should be excited at our progress in bringing these capabilities to your favorite devices.
 This blog post is written by Yaniv Garty, VP and GM Wireless Connectivity Solutions, Intel and Tal Tamir, VP Product Management, Qualcomm Atheros, Inc.. A version of this blog post is also posted on Qualcomm’s blog.
Achieved by the 802.11 ad devices in good link conditions.
Intel and the Intel logo are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
Intel technologies may require enabled hardware, specific software, or services activation. Performance varies depending on system configuration.
Statements in this document that refer to Intel’s plans and expectations for the quarter, the year, and the future, are forward-looking statements that involve a number of risks and uncertainties. A detailed discussion of the factors that could affect Intel’s results and plans is included in Intel’s SEC filings, including the annual report on Form 10-K.
Qualcomm Atheros, Inc. is a subsidiary of Qualcomm Incorporated
WiGig is a copyright of the Wi-Fi Alliance

Friday, February 5, 2016

FLEXIBLE SCREEN of smart phone n tv

FLEXIBLE SCREEN 

WE ALL HEARD ABOUT THE SCREEN WHICH BENDS AND STILL WORK FLAWLESSLY , TODAY'S DISCUSSED TOPIC IS 

FLEXIBLE SCREEN 


latest technology news Recently we seen the Samsung galaxy s6 and s6 edge which is launched with flexible curved screen  Samsung is developing its technology and more than that, promise than will release a new flexible display. according to Samsung " Galaxy S6 has been shipped in over ten million units to distributors and retailers, in both variants, S6 and S6 EDGE "

It does not mean that only sumsung is developing the flexible screen concept there are more top company's which are working on this concept.
LG is the competitive partner of sumsung ,LG released OLED PANEL which has a HIGH DEFINITION class resolution of 1200x810 with almost one MILLION MEGAPIXELS .


Introduced by 

Xerox PARC

The concept of developing a flexible display was first put forth by Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Company). In 1974, Nicholas K. Sheridon, a PARC employee, made a major breakthrough in flexible display technology and produced the first flexible e-paper display. Dubbed Gyricon, this new display technology was designed to mimic the properties of paper, but married with the capacity to display dynamic digital images. Sheridon envisioned the advent of paperless offices and sought commercial applications for Gyricon. In 2003 Gyricon LLC was formed as a direct subsidiary of Xerox to commercialize the electronic paper technology developed at Xerox PARC. Gyricon LLC's operations were short lived and in December 2005 Xerox closed the subsidiary company in a move to focus on licensing the technology instead. 

then later , In 2005, Arizona State University opened a 250,000 square foot facility dedicated to flexible display research named the ASU Flexible Display Center (FDC)

NOW HOW ACTUALLY IT WORKS 

THIS FLEXIBLE SCREEN IS MADE BY THE OLEDs . oleds are the type of leds in which the emissive electromagnetism layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current. This layer of organic semiconductor is situated between two electrodes; typically, at least one of these electrodes is transparent . 

These OLEDs are used in making the flexible screen , smart phones ,television etc

Mostly we know about the type of OLED (2 DIFFERENT TYPE OF WORKING MODE)

  1.  PASSIVE MATRIX OLED ( PMOLED SCREEN )

  1. ACTIVE MATRIX OLED ( AMOLED SCREEN )


An OLED display works without a backlight; thus, it can display deep black levels and can be thinner and lighter than a liquid crystal display(LCD). In low ambient light conditions (such as a dark room), an OLED screen can achieve a higher contrast ratio than an LCD, regardless of whether the LCD uses cold cathode fluorescent lamps or an LED backlight.

KEY FEATURES 


  • IT'S LIGHT WEIGHT AND HAS CLEAR DISPLAY. 
  • Its able to work in wide temperature difference range .
  • It can bear some vibrations.
  • bearable in  shock condition.
 this area is steel developing , most fast acceptance is from the sumsung , which going to launch the flexible screens in GALAXY S7  series .


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Wednesday, February 3, 2016

Running Linux from a USB drive in Windows

Live Linux environments work just like a typical operating system but run entirely from a CD or USB stick -- the latter being the most common choice these days. Since nothing is written to the host computer’s local storage, when you’re done all you need to do is remove the media, reboot, and everything will be exactly as it was.
There are a number of uses to this, from simply test driving Linux to troubleshooting a Windows PC, or work on the go from someone else’s computer but running your own OS securely with all your personal files and settings.
There are basically two options when it comes to running Linux from a USB drive: from within Windows using virtualization software such as VirtualBox, or creating a boot disk. This quick guide details both methods in a few easy steps.

Running Linux from a USB drive in Windows

Learn the tech :- This option will come in handy if you want to run a Live Linux environment but need to retain access to Windows. Perhaps you just want to do something real quick without rebooting, or want to be able to hide the virtualized Linux instance. Our preferred weapon of choice here is a little tool called Linux Live USB Creator.
It’s free, open-source software, and it has a built-in virtualization feature that lets you run a self contained version of Virtual Box from the USB drive. This means the host computer you’ll run Linux from doesn’t need to have Virtual Box installed.
Here's what you'll need to do:
  • Download and transfer the ISO image of your preferred Linux distribution to a USB drive.
  • Download and install Linux Live USB Creator.
  • Launch LiLi USB Creator and follow the straightforward steps guiding you through the process.
    • Step 1. Select the USB drive where you want Linux installed.
    • Step 2. Choose the source ISO file of the Linux distribution you downloaded.
    • Step 3. Choose Live Mode.
    • Step 4. Leave the third box checked, the other two are up to you and self-explanatory.

You will need and internet connection to complete the process -- mainly to download VirtualBox if you don’t have it installed. Once the process is finished, open your USB key in Windows Explorer and you should see a folder called VirtualBox containing two executable files: VirtualizeThisKey.exe andVirtualBox.exe.
Running VirtualizeThisKey.exe will launch your Linux distribution in Windows (inside VirtualBox), whereas VirtualBox.exe opens the full VirtualBox interface.

Boot Linux from a USB drive

If you’d rather load Linux without going through Windows first this is the way to go. There are a few different tools for creating bootable USB drives around the web but one I’m particularly fond of is YUMI -- short for Your Universal Multiboot Installer.
trickntechs.blogspot.in
This is the successor to our MultibootISO and can be used to install more than one distribution to run from your USB. It’s extremely simple to use, and all files from each Linux distribution are stored within the Multiboot folder, making for a nicely organized Multiboot Drive that can still be used for other storage purposes.
  • Download the ISO image of your preferred Linux distribution.
  • Download and install YUMI.
  • Launch YUMI and follow three simple steps guiding you through the process.
    • Step 1. Select the USB drive where you want Linux installed.
    • Step 2. Select the Linux distribution you'll be installing from the list.
    • Step 3. Choose the source ISO file of the Linux distribution you downloaded.

Once YUMI is done you’re all set. To boot into Linux just plug the USB drive into the host computer, reboot, and press the required key during this process to enter the Boot Menu (usually F10). After choosing your USB drive you should see the YUMI boot menu where you can pick the desired Linux distribution in Live mode.
You can run YUMI's boot drive creator again to add More ISOs/distributions to your drive as needed and they'll all show up in this menu during boot.

Which Linux distribution should I install?

There's no single right answer to that question. For a new user jumping into the world of Linux-based operating systems the amount of options available can be overwhelming. Finding the "right" distro for you can only be done though experience but there are plenty of resources online to help you figure it out.
Popular choices for newcomers include Ubuntu, Mint and PC Linux OS. If you are looking for a secure operating system to take with you anywhere, you might also want to give Tails a try. The latter received a lot of press recently when it was disclosed that Edward Snowden was using it to avoid NSA snooping.



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How to improve blog writing

Image result for blogger
1. Self-host
Self-hosting your own website is one of the easiest ways to give your blog more credibility. It’s a lot easier for readers to remember a website then a blog " trickntechs.blogspot.in " , It also shows that you take your blog more seriously than someone that is utilizing a free blog site. And these days, it’s relatively cheap to host your own domain name. HostGator, Dreamhost, and Bluehost are three hosting companies that charge you about $10 a month (or less!) to self-host your website. You can even add a custom domain in most free blogging platforms if you don't want to move away.

2. Promote via social media sites
Facebook and Twitter are two great resources when it comes to promoting your blog. You can create a fan page on Facebook where you can link to your blog site and keep your readers engaged as well as grow your readership. Facebook is such a huge social media resource with the ability to reach millions of potential readers… why wouldn’t you want to take advantage of that? The same goes for Twitter, where you can post links to your current (and past) blog posts and also find different chat groups to participate in. Participating in chat groups is a great way to find people with the same interests as you. You don't have to be limited to just Facebook and Twitter. There are many websites you can be active on.

3. Headlines
You should write strong headlines that easily define what you are going to be talking about in your post. This not only peaks a readers interest, but also allows your blog to be more searchable. Strong doesn’t necessarily mean something with flair though, it means something direct that immediately identifies what readers can expect to find in your post, and that will pop up in a search engine when someone types in a particular topic.
trickntechs.blogspot.in

4. Write well
Readers can tell the difference between a post that has obvious time and effort put into it and one that is just slapped up to get something out there. Put time into what you’re posting about. People appreciate posts which are original and well thought out. 

5. Layout
Your blog layout should be clean and easy to navigate. The design should be visually appealing without being overwhelming. No one wants to have to guess on where to find information. You should have a search bar where people can easily search topics and archives that readers can look through to see what else you’ve written. You should also include a contact page so that it’s easy for others to get in touch with you if they have questions or comments about something you’ve written, or want to get in touch with you about a potential business deal. 

By putting these tactics into play you should be able to market your blog in a more effective way and increase your readership. It may take a little time on the forefront, but you will reap the benefits of these efforts in the end.

Keyboard Shortcuts


Useful Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows Computers




While most of us are already aware of obvious keyboard shortcuts like “Alt+F4” and “Ctrl+C”, there are some obscure shortcuts which most of us tend to overlook. These keyboard shortcuts are not only useful for the average PC user but for advanced users as well. This article contains many such amazing keyboard shortcuts which if used properly could save a lot of time and effort. So let's get started.
Windows key+D: This shortcut is the keyboard equivalent of “Show the Desktop”. It is useful for quickly minimizing every open window when someone walks in and you are doing some private work.

Ctrl+Shift+Esc: This shortcut directly starts the task manager. While Alt+Ctrl+Del was used to bring out the Task Manager in Windows XP and earlier versions, in Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 8 and Windows 7, it just brings up the lock this computer screen.

Ctrl+Click: This shortcut is useful for opening a link in a background tab. This is useful when you have to load a page without leaving the current one.

Alt+Print Screen: takes the screenshot of the current active window as opposed to just Print Screen which takes the screenshot of the entire screen.

Shift+Click for Yes to All and No to All: If you have a lot of dialog boxes asking yes and no question, just shift+click Yes or No on one to yes all or no all.

Ctrl+C on an error dialog box to copy its contents: Suppose your computer is giving an error message and you want to copy its contents to send to the support guy, what do you do? Just press Ctrl+C while the dialog box is highlighted and its contents will be copied to your clipboard.

Ctrl+T: This keyboard shortcut opens a new tab in internet browsers.

Ctrl+Shift+T: Reopens the last closed tab.

Ctrl+Shift+N: This shortcut opens a new incognito window in Google Chrome.

Ctrl+Shift+P: Opens a new private window in Mozilla Firefox.

Alt+Enter after writing the domain name in the address bar of your browser to insert .com automatically.

Shift+Enter inserts .net domain name extension.

Ctrl+W: This shortcut closes the current tab in your browser quickly.

Ctrl+Backspace: This shortcut deletes the last word you have typed. It is useful in case you typed in a wrong word and want to delete it quickly.

Ctrl+Left or Right Arrow key: This shortcut allows you to move the cursor one word at a time instead of the default one character at a time.

Ctrl++: This shortcut allows you to zoom in web pages in web browsers. Useful when text on a web page is too small to read properly. Ctrl+Scroll wheel can also zoom in documents, file thumbnails and icons in Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 8, Windows 7 and Windows Vista.

Ctrl+-: This shortcut does the reverse of the previous shortcut.

Ctrl+0: Reset the webpage's zoom.

Windows key+M: Minimizes all the open windows.

Ctrl+L: This shortcut allows you to quickly jump to the address bar of your web browser.

Windows key+Pause/Break: Quickly open the system properties dialog box. 

Ctrl+Shift+Delete: This shortcut opens the option to delete your browser's history, cookies, cache and other details that it stores while you browse the internet. This shortcut is extremely useful for the privacy conscious.

Windows Key+L: This shortcut locks your computer.

Ctrl+H: makes the history appear.

CTRL+B: Bold CTRL+U: Underline CTRL+I: Italic.

Alt+Select: This shortcut allows you to select rectangular blocks of text in Word processors, something that is not possible with simple select.

F2: Allows you to rename the selected file.
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Holding Shift while inserting a device with removable storage prevents automatic run.

Ctrl+F: This keyboard shortcut opens the Find option in any program.

Ctrl+S: If you are working on a software and want to quickly save your progress, this shortcut will come in handy.

Ctrl+Home and Ctrl+End: Useful for quickly going to the top and bottom of a page.

Ctrl+P: Useful for printing the current page.

Space Bar: While viewing a web page in a browser, pressing space bar moves the page down.

Alt+Tab: Useful for quickly cycling between running applications. Press along with Shift to cycle backwards.

Ctrl+Tab: Cycle between tabs in your browser.

Ctrl+F5: Clears the cache and refreshes the current tab.

Shift+Right click: Open alternate right click options.

Alt+Double click: Open the file's properties. Alt+Enter can also be used for this.


These are some keyboard shortcuts that I found extremely useful. If you know some more useful keyboard shortcuts, do mention them in the comments